Welcome!

WebRTC Summit Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Carmen Gonzalez, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Containers Expo Blog, SDN Journal, @DevOpsSummit

@CloudExpo: Article

What ‘Software-Defined’ Really Means | @CloudExpo #AI #SDN #SDX #DevOps

It’s time to bring some clarity into the big picture of SD – what it is, and perhaps even more importantly, what it is not.

The visual model to declarative metadata representation to immutable deployment vision is in essence what SD is all about.

The secret to making this approach practical, and thus the key to understanding why SD approaches have become so prevalent, is the word immutable.

Once we get an SD approach right, we no longer have to touch the deployed technology whatsoever. Instead, to make a change, update the model and redeploy.

In a recent Cortex, I bemoaned the fact that as buzzwords go, Digital Transformation is excessively vague. There is yet another buzzword of our times that is suffering the same fate: Software-Defined.

Rare though buzz-adjectives may be among the pantheon of buzz-nouns and the occasional buzz-verb, Software-Defined (SD) has become remarkably pervasive. In fact, it ties together many different, quite disparate concepts into what has become a vague mishmash.

It's time to bring some clarity into the big picture of SD - what it is, and perhaps even more importantly, what it is not.

The Many Uses of Software-Defined
The most concrete use of the SD adjective is perhaps in the phrase Software-Defined Networking (SDN). SDN separates network equipment's control plane (where routing instructions and other metadata go) from the data plane (where the data being routed go), and then shifts the entire control plane to centralized software.

The network, however, is only the beginning. We have SD infrastructure (SDI), SD data centers (SDDCs), SD wide-area networking (SD-WAN), and more. Each of these approaches follows the lead of SDN, shifting control of various pieces of hardware (or virtualized hardware) to centralized, software-based management and configuration applications.

SDI (which includes SDN), in fact, is at the core of cloud computing. Clearly, there's no way to scale a cloud data center if people had to run from server to server making changes.

Furthermore, Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) from the telco world also falls under the SD banner. With NFV, telco service providers shift all control to software, so that the underlying hardware is entirely generic. No more dedicated switches, routers, and specialized telco gear - all the hardware consist of generic, white-label boxes.

Software-Defined: Beyond the Network
While the network-centric context of SD in corporate networks, cloud data centers, and telco infrastructure forms the home base of the SD movement, SDI is also an essential enabler of continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD), core elements of DevOps.

In order to achieve the velocity that CI/CD promise, the ops part of the story must be SD. Instead of ops people managing servers individually, the DevOps team must be able to deploy and manage software automatically via centralized software control. In other words, the immutable infrastructure principle behind DevOps is nothing more than SDI.

In fact, now that virtualization has matured, all the infrastructure from hypervisors down to bare metal is SD.

At the application level, however, the SD story gets more complicated.

Using software to automate the tasks involved in deploying software is nothing new. Developers have been using runbooks for years - scripts that tell various parts of the environment to execute a series of tasks in a particular sequence.

As DevOps has matured, the notion of the mundane runbook has taken on new life, as DevOps vendors automate increasingly broad swaths of the software development lifecycle (SDLC) with ‘recipes' or other scripting approaches.

As applications and the environments they run in get more complicated, however, the world of DevOps automation finds itself in a Catch-22: the automation scripts or recipes themselves become increasingly complex software applications in their own right, and thus must go through an SDLC of their own, with all the testing and governance that go along with it.

As a result, we're back to square one, manually creating, managing, deploying, and versioning software.

Does Software-Defined Mean Declarative?
To address this Catch-22, some DevOps tools take a declarative approach. Instead of scripting the environment step by step, the declarative approach enables the user to describe the desired behavior, and then the tool interprets such a description and takes the necessary actions to implement such behavior out of sight of the user.

In fact, in many contexts, when most vendors say SD, they really mean that they take a declarative approach, separating configuration from the underlying implementation. There's more to SD behavior than simply following a declarative approach, however.

For example, HTML (and markup languages in general) are declarative. And while we could certainly hand-code a web page by pecking out HTML, we're far more likely to use a visual tool for that purpose.

When we build a web site using such a tool, we're essentially working with models. The model is a visual, configurable representation of the page that the tool can convert into HTML for browsers to render into the page itself for users to view.

In this example, therefore, we have three different ways of thinking about the page: as a visual model, independent of any particular technology implementation of the page; as the HTML markup for that page; and as the action of the browser itself, an application purpose-built to render HTML into visual pages.

Architects and other shrewd readers will recognize the pattern above as being an instance of Model-Driven Architecture (MDA), or its common implementation, Model-Driven Development (MDD).

Does Software-Defined Mean Model-Driven?
MDA is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard
for creating metamodels that represent platform-independent models (our visual model, above) and platform-specific models (the HTML markup in the example), as well as an abstracted approach for turning the former into the latter.

Models, especially visual ones, are in broad use today, but MDA and MDD's best days are behind them. The reason: they didn't deal as well with change as MDA's creators had hoped.

In the MDD world, a developer might build a (platform-independent) model of an application in a model-driven tool and then push a button and out would pop the (platform-specific) source code that represented the working application.

However, if developers wanted to subsequently make a change, they would either need to change the model and regenerate and redeploy all the code (an onerous and time-consuming task), or tweak the auto-generated code itself, thus making it inconsistent with the model.

Round-trip tooling that would take tweaked code and automatically update the model - the holy grail of MDD - has proven impractical.

If we combine some of the principles from MDD with the declarative approach, however, we finally see some light at the end of the tunnel. Instead of the code-generating context of MDA reminiscent of CASE tools of yore, the platform-specific representation for a declarative model consists of a metadata representation of a configuration.

In practice, tools that take this approach create such metadata representations in JSON, XML, or a domain-specific language appropriate to the task at hand. Developers occasionally have reason to view such metadata, but rarely if ever have call to monkey with it directly.

Instead, users - who need not be developers - simply make changes in the model, typically via direct interaction with icons or other visual elements, or by selecting appropriate configurations. The underlying platform takes care of the rest.

The Intellyx Take
The round-trip code-generation vision of MDD proved unworkable, but the visual model to declarative metadata representation to immutable deployment vision is in essence what SD is all about.

The secret to making this approach practical, and thus the key to understanding why SD approaches have become so prevalent, is the word immutable.

Once we get an SD approach right, we no longer have to touch the deployed technology whatsoever. Instead, to make a change, update the model and redeploy.

The most important takeaway from this Cortex: this core SD pattern is fully generalizable. It works with networks, data centers, DevOps-based deployments, and as I'll cover in part two, it's also at the core of the Low-Code/No-Code movement.

It's no wonder, therefore, that Software-Defined Everything (SDX) is rising to the top of the buzzword heap - but SDX is no mere buzzword. It describes the central technological principles behind Agile Digital Transformation.

Copyright © Intellyx LLC. Intellyx publishes the Agile Digital Transformation Roadmap poster, advises companies on their digital transformation initiatives, and helps vendors communicate their agility stories. As of the time of writing, none of the organizations mentioned in this article are Intellyx customers. Image credit: Tim Adams.

More Stories By Jason Bloomberg

Jason Bloomberg is the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise. As president of Intellyx, Mr. Bloomberg brings his years of thought leadership in the areas of Cloud Computing, Enterprise Architecture, and Service-Oriented Architecture to a global clientele of business executives, architects, software vendors, and Cloud service providers looking to achieve technology-enabled business agility across their organizations and for their customers. His latest book, The Agile Architecture Revolution (John Wiley & Sons, 2013), sets the stage for Mr. Bloomberg’s groundbreaking Agile Architecture vision.

Mr. Bloomberg is perhaps best known for his twelve years at ZapThink, where he created and delivered the Licensed ZapThink Architect (LZA) SOA course and associated credential, certifying over 1,700 professionals worldwide. He is one of the original Managing Partners of ZapThink LLC, the leading SOA advisory and analysis firm, which was acquired by Dovel Technologies in 2011. He now runs the successor to the LZA program, the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Course, around the world.

Mr. Bloomberg is a frequent conference speaker and prolific writer. He has published over 500 articles, spoken at over 300 conferences, Webinars, and other events, and has been quoted in the press over 1,400 times as the leading expert on agile approaches to architecture in the enterprise.

Mr. Bloomberg’s previous book, Service Orient or Be Doomed! How Service Orientation Will Change Your Business (John Wiley & Sons, 2006, coauthored with Ron Schmelzer), is recognized as the leading business book on Service Orientation. He also co-authored the books XML and Web Services Unleashed (SAMS Publishing, 2002), and Web Page Scripting Techniques (Hayden Books, 1996).

Prior to ZapThink, Mr. Bloomberg built a diverse background in eBusiness technology management and industry analysis, including serving as a senior analyst in IDC’s eBusiness Advisory group, as well as holding eBusiness management positions at USWeb/CKS (later marchFIRST) and WaveBend Solutions (now Hitachi Consulting).

@WebRTCSummit Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Enzu will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st Int\ernational Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Enzu’s mission is to be the leading provider of enterprise cloud solutions worldwide. Enzu enables online businesses to use its IT infrastructure to their competitive advantage. By offering a suite of proven hosting and management services, Enzu wants companies to focus on the core of their online business and let Enzu manage their IT hosting infrastructure.
SYS-CON Events announced today that GrapeUp, the leading provider of rapid product development at the speed of business, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the USA and Europe, we work with a variety of customers from emerging startups to Fortune 1000 companies.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ayehu will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on October 31 - November 2, 2017 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara California. Ayehu provides IT Process Automation & Orchestration solutions for IT and Security professionals to identify and resolve critical incidents and enable rapid containment, eradication, and recovery from cyber security breaches. Ayehu provides customers greater control over IT infrastructure through automation. Ayehu solutions have been deployed by major enterprises worldwide, and currently, support thousands of IT processes across the globe. The company has offices in New York, California, and Israel.
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev, a client-oriented software development company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MobiDev is a software company that develops and delivers turn-key mobile apps, websites, web services, and complex software systems for startups and enterprises. Since 2009 it has grown from a small group of passionate engineers and business managers to a full-scale mobile software company with over 200 developers, designers, quality assurance engineers, project managers in house, specializing in the world-class mobile and web development.
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, which can process our conversational commands and orchestrate the outcomes we request across our personal and professional realm of connected devices.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Outscale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Outscale's technology makes an automated and adaptable Cloud available to businesses, supporting them in the most complex IT projects while controlling their operational aspects. You boost your IT infrastructure's reactivity, with request responses that only take a few seconds.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Progress, a global leader in application development, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Enterprises today are rapidly adopting the cloud, while continuing to retain business-critical/sensitive data inside the firewall. This is creating two separate data silos – one inside the firewall and the other outside the firewall. Cloud ISVs often get requests to connect these silos using technologies such as VPN; however, these tend to be difficult to manage and are not engineered for accessing business data from the cloud.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Progress, a global leader in application development, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Enterprises today are rapidly adopting the cloud, while continuing to retain business-critical/sensitive data inside the firewall. This is creating two separate data silos – one inside the firewall and the other outside the firewall. Cloud ISVs often get requests to connect these silos using technologies such as VPN; however, these tend to be difficult to manage and are not engineered for accessing business data from the cloud.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Outscale, a global pure play Infrastructure as a Service provider and strategic partner of Dassault Systèmes, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2010, Outscale simplifies infrastructure complexities and boosts the business agility of its customers. Outscale delivers a secure, reliable and industrial strength solution for its customers, which include solopreneurs, fast-growing startups, large multi-national companies and government agencies. The company is a strategic partner to Dassault Systémes, and today powers hundreds of organizations throughout North America, Europe and Asia. Outscale’s U.S. headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey, and its global headquarters is in Saint-Cloud, France.
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Interoute is the owner operator of Europe's largest network and a global cloud services platform, which encompasses over 70,000 km of lit fiber, 15 data centers, 17 virtual data centers and 33 colocation centers, with connections to 195 additional partner data centers. Our full-service Unified ICT platform serves startups and international enterprises, as well as every major European telecommunications service provider and major operators across the world, global internet giants, governments and universities.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Systena America will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Systena Group has been in business for various software development and verification in Japan, US, ASEAN, and China by utilizing the knowledge we gained from all types of device development for various industries including smartphones (Android/iOS), wireless communication, security technology and IoT services.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CollabNet, a global leader in enterprise software development, release automation and DevOps solutions, will be a Bronze Sponsor of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, taking place from June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CollabNet offers a broad range of solutions with the mission of helping modern organizations deliver quality software at speed. The company’s latest innovation, the DevOps Lifecycle Manager (DLM), supports Value Stream Mapping for the development and operations tool chain by offering DevOps Tool Chain Integration and Traceability; DevOps Tool Chain Orchestration; and DevOps Insight and Intelligence. CollabNet also offers traditional application lifecycle management, ALM, for the enterprise through its TeamForge product.
Every successful software product evolves from an idea to an enterprise system. Notably, the same way is passed by the product owner's company. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Oleg Lola, CEO of MobiDev, will provide a generalized overview of the evolution of a software product, the product owner, the needs that arise at various stages of this process, and the value brought by a software development partner to the product owner as a response to these needs.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Super Micro Computer, Inc., a global leader in compute, storage and networking technologies, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Supermicro (NASDAQ: SMCI), the leading innovator in high-performance, high-efficiency server technology, is a premier provider of advanced server Building Block Solutions® for Data Center, Cloud Computing, Enterprise IT, Hadoop/Big Data, HPC and Embedded Systems worldwide. Supermicro is committed to protecting the environment through its “We Keep IT Green®” initiative and provides customers with the most energy-efficient, environmentally friendly solutions available on the market.
SYS-CON Events announced today that A&I Solutions has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 1999, A&I Solutions is a leading information technology (IT) software and services provider focusing on best-in-class enterprise solutions. By partnering with industry leaders in technology, A&I assures customers high performance levels across all IT environments including: mainframe, distributed, virtual, and cloud platforms. With expertise in the entire application lifecycle —Plan, Build, Test, Deploy, Operate, and Secure— A&I enables customers to transform their businesses by driving consistency and maximizing efficiency.
SYS-CON Events announced today that EARP will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. "We are a software house, so we perfectly understand challenges that other software houses face in their projects. We can augment a team, that will work with the same standards and processes as our partners' internal teams. Our teams will deliver the same quality within the required time and budget just as our partners' teams would do. It helps our partners to expand their operations with our forces."
SYS-CON Events announced today that Tappest will exhibit MooseFS at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. MooseFS is a breakthrough concept in the storage industry. It allows you to secure stored data with either duplication or erasure coding using any server. The newest – 4.0 version of the software enables users to maintain the redundancy level with even 50% less hard drive space required. The software functions on all major operating systems and is used around the world by businesses, universities and NGOs. The MooseFS team provides on-site implementation and support for your operations.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.